IMPACTO DE LA CALIDAD EDUCATIVA SOBRE EL DESEMPEÑO EN PRUEBAS DE INTELIGENCIA DE NIÑOS CON DIFICULTADES LECTORAS

Autores/as

  • José Pablo Escobar Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile
  • Marcela Tenorio Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile
  • Francisco Ceric Universidad del Desarrollo
  • Ricardo Rosas Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.22235/cp.v8i1.1037

Palabras clave:

inteligencia, educación, calidad educativa, desarrollo lector

Resumen

La relación entre inteligencia y educación es compleja. Aunque es una discusión no resuelta, hay modelos teóricos que consideran la inteligencia como producto de la educación, bajo mediación de las habilidades lectoras. La calidad educativa parece ejercer un efecto determinante sobre el desarrollo intelectual, con un impacto aún más importante cuando se trata de niños con dificultades lectoras. Este es un estudio longitudinal a tres años que evaluó el impacto de la calidad de la escuela sobre la evolución de coeficiente intelectual en niños con retraso lector. Los resultados muestran desempeños diferenciados en función de la calidad de la escuela (F [2, 112]= 4.310, p< 0.05). Se observa una disminución significativa en las habilidades verbales de los niños que asisten a la escuela de menor calidad (F [2, 112]= 4.184, p<0.05). Los resultados se discuten a la luz de la calidad en las oportunidades educativas y el papel que el desarrollo lector tiene en la relación entre educación e inteligencia.

Descargas

Los datos de descargas todavía no están disponibles.

Citas

Alloway, T. P., Alloway, R. G., & Wootan, S. (2014). Home sweet home: Does where you live matter to working memory and other cognitive skills?. Journal of Experimental Child Psychology.doi: 10.1016/j.jecp.2013.11.012

American Educational Research Association, American Psychological Association & National Council on Measurement in Education. (1999). Standards for educational and psychological testing. Washington, USA: American Educational Research Association.

Balbi, A., Cuadro, A., & Trías, D. (2009). Comprensión lectora y reconocimiento de palabras. Ciencias Psicológicas, 3(2), 153-160.

Barber, N. (2005). Educational and ecological correlates of IQ: A cross- national investigation. Intelligence, 33(3), 273- 284. doi: 10.1016/j.bbr.2011.03.031

Bartels, M., Rietveld, M., Van Baal, G., Boomsma, D. (2002). Heritability of educational achievement in 12 years olds and the overlap with cognitive ability. Twin Research, 5(6), 544-553. doi: 10.1375/136905202762342017

Bauman, E. (1991). Stability of WISC-R scores in children with learning difficulties. Psychology in the Schools, 28, 95-100. doi:j,kjh,10.1002/1520-6807(199104)28:2<95::AIDPITS2310280203>3.0.CO;2-9

Binet, A. (1905). New Methods for the Diangnosis of the Intellectual Level of Subnormals. L’Année Psychologique, 12, 191-244.

Brunner, J.J., & Elacqua, G. (2004). Factores que inciden en una educación efectiva. Evidencia Internacional No. 139-140. La Educación, 139.

Burger, K. (2010). How does early childhood care and education affect cognitive development? An international review of the effects of early interventions for children from different social backgrounds. Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 25(2), 140-165. doi: 10.1016/j.ecresq.2009.11.001

Burchinal, M., Peisner-Feinberg, E., Bryant, D., & Clifford, R. (2000). Children’s social and cognitive development and child care quality: Testing for different associations related to poverty, gender, or ethnicity. Journal of Applied Developmental Sciences, 4, 149-165. doi: 10.1207/S1532480XADS0403_4

Burchinal, M., Vandergrift, N., Pianta, R., & Mashburn, A. (2010). Threshold analysis of association between child care quality and child outcomes for low income children in pre- kindergarten programs. Early Childhood Research Quarterly, 25, 166-176. doi: 10.1016/j.ecresq.2009.10.004

Cahan, S., & Cohen, N. (1989). Age versus schooling effects on intelligence development. Child Development, 60, 1239-1249. 10.1111/j.1467-8624.1989.tb03554.x

Campbell, F.A., & Ramey, C.T. (1994). Effects of early intervention on intellectual and academic achievement: A follow-up study of children from low-income families. Child Development, 65, 684–698. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-8624.1994.tb00777.x

Camilli, G., Vargas,S., Ryan, S., & Barnett, S. (2010). Meta analysis of the effects of earlyeducation interventions on cognitive and social interventions. Teachers College Record, 112(3), 579-620.

Cattell, R. B. (1971). Abilities: Their structure, growth, and action. New York: Houghton Mifflin.

Ceci, S. (1991). How much does schooling influence general intelligence and its cognitive components? A reassessment of evidence. Developmental Psychology, 27, 703- 722. doi: 10.1037/0012-1649.27.5.703

Ceci, S., & Williams, W. (1997). Schooling, intelligence and income. American Psychologist, 52 (10), 1051- 1058. doi: 10.1037/0003-066X.52.10.1051

Cliffordson, C., & Gustafsson, J. (2008). Effects of age and schooling on intellectual performance: Estimates obtained from analysis of continuous variation in age and length of schooling. Intelligence, 36(2), 143-152. doi: 10.1016/j.intell.2007.03.006

Darling-Hammond, L., & Baratz-Snowden, J. (Eds.). (2007). A Good Teacher in Every Classroom: Preparing the Highly Qualified Teachers Our Children Deserve. Educational Horizons, 85(2), 111-132.

Deary, I., Penke, L., & Jhonson, W. (2010). The neuroscience of human intelligence difference. Nature Reviews Neuroscience, 11, 201-211. doi: 10.1038/nrn2793

Deary, I., Strand, S., Smith, P. & Fernandes, C. (2007). Intelligence and educational achievement. Intelligence, 35, 13- 21. doi: 10.1016/j.intell.2006.02.001

Docente Mas. (2011). Informes de resultados y consecuencias. Los Niveles de Desempeño. Recuperado de http://www.docentemas.cl/dm05_informes_niveles.php

Elosúa, M., García, J., Gómez, I., López, C., Pérez, E. & Orjales, I. (2012). Habilidades lectoras y rendimiento académico en 3 y 6 de primaria: aspectos evolutivos y educativos. Estudios de Psicología, 33(2), 207- 218. doi: 10.1174/021093912800676411

European Communities. (2001). European report on the quality of school education sixteen quality indicators. Luxembourg: Office for Official Publications of the European Communities.

Farah, M.J. Shera, D.M., Savage, J.H., Betancourt, L., Giannetta, J.M., Brodsky, N.L., Malmud, E.K., & Hurt, H. (2006). Childhood poverty: Specific associations with neurocognitive development. Brain Research, 1110(1), 166–174. doi:10.1016/j.brainres.2006.06.072

Fisher, R. (1956). Statistical Methods and Scientific Inference. New York, NY: Hafner.

Galton, F. (1869). Hereditary Genius: An Inquiry into its Laws and Consequences. Macmillan/Fontana, London.

Härnqvist, K. (1968). Relative changes in intelligence from 13 to 18. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, 9, 50-82. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-9450.1968.tb00518.x

Herrnstein, R. & Murray, C. (1994). The bell curve. Intelligence and class structure in American life. New York: Free Press PaperBack.

Hishinuma, E.S. & Yamakawa, R. (1993). Construct and criterion-related validity of the WISC-III for exceptional students and those who are “at-risk.” Journal of Psychoeducational Assessment: Advances in Psychoeducational Assessment. Monograph Series, Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children: Third Edition, 94-104.

Huttenlocher, J., Levine, S., & Vevea, J. (1998). Environmental imput and cognitive growth: A study using time period comparisons. Child Development, 69(4), 1012-1029. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-8624.1998.tb06158.x

IBM (2012) Statistical Package for Social Science (18) [Software de computación]. Chicago: SPSS Inc.

INTEGRA. (1994). Impacto y efectividad del Programa de Desarrollo Integral del Menor. Santiago, RM: INTEGRA.

Kaufman, A.S. (1994). Intelligent testing with the WISC-III. Wiley series on personality processes. Oxford, England: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Kaufman, A. S., & Lichtenberger, E. (2000). Essentials of WISC-III and WPPSI-R assessment. New York: Wiley.

Kuncel, N., Ones, D., & Sackett, P. (2010). Individual differences as predictors of work, educational, and broad life outcomes. Personality and Individual Differences, 49, 331- 336. doi: 10.1016/j.paid.2010.03.042

Laidra, K., Pullmann, H. & Allik, J. (2007). Personality and intelligence as predictors of academic achievement: A cross-sectional study from elementary to secondary school. Journal of Personality and Individual Differences, 42(3), 441- 451. doi: 10.1016/j.paid.2006.08.001

Loehlin, J.C. (2000). Group differences in intelligence. In R. J. Sternberg (Ed.), Handbook of intelligence (pp. 176−193). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Lynn, R., & Mikk, J. (2009). National IQs Predict Educational Attainment in Math, Reading and Science across 56 Nations. Intelligence, 37(3), 305-310. doi: 10.1016/j.intell.2009.01.002

Lynn, R. & Mikk, J. (2007). National differences in intelligence and educational attainment. Intelligence, 35, 115- 121. doi: 10.1016/j.intell.2006.06.001

Mackintosh, N.J. (1998). IQ and Human Intelligence. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Martínez, I., Martín, E., & Mateos, M. (2011). Enseñar a leer y escribir para aprender en la educación primaria. Cultura y Educación, 23(3), 399- 414. doi: 10.1174/113564011797330306

McNamara, J. K., Scissons, M., & Gutknecth, N. (2011). A Longitudinal Study of Kindergarten Children At Risk for Reading Disabilities The Poor Really Are Getting Poorer. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 44(5), 421-430. doi: 10.1177/0022219411410040

Ministerio de Educación (2011). Resultados del Sistema Nacional de Evaluación del Desempeño. Chile.

Nagoshi, C.T., & Johnson, R.C. (2004). Socioeconomic status does not moderate the familiality of cognitive abilities in the Hawaii Family Study of Cognition. Journal of Biosocial Science, 1−9. doi: 10.1017/S0021932004007023

Najman, J., Aird, R., Bor, W., O´Callaghan, M., Williams, G. & Shuttlewood, G. (2004). The generational transmission of socieconomic inequalities in child cognitive development and emotional health. Social Science and Medicine, 58(6), 1147- 1158. doi: 10.1016/S0277-9536(03)00286-7

Neisser, U., Boodoo, G., Bouchard, T., Wade, A., Brody, N., Ceci, S., ... Urbina, S. (1996). Intelligence: Knowns and unknowns. American Psychologist, 51(2), 77- 101. doi: 10.1037/0003-066X.51.2.77

Nickerson, R. (2011). Developing Intelligence through instruction. En Sternberg, R. & Kaufman, B. The Cambridge handbook of intelligence. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press

Noble, K.G., Farah, M.J., & McCandliss, B.D. (2006). Socioeconomic background modulates cognition achievement in reading. Cognition Development, 21(3), 349-368. doi: 10.1016/j.cogdev.2006.01.007

Oliver, M., Venville, G., & Adey, P. (2012). Effects of a cognitive acceleration programme in a low socieconomic high school in regional Australia. International Journal of Science Education, 34(9), 1393-1410. doi: 10.1080/09500693.2012.673241

Peisner-Feinberg, E. S., Burchinal, M., Clifford, R. M., Culkin, M., Howes, C., Kagan, S. L., & Yazejian, N. (2001). The relation of preschool child care quality to children’s cognitive and social developmental trajectories through second grade. Child Development, 72(5), 1534-1553. doi: 10.1111/1467-8624.00364

Ramirez, V. & Rosas, R. (2007). Standardization of WISC-III in Chile: Test description, factorial Structure, and internal consistency of the scales. Psykhe, 16(1), 91- 109.

Ramsden, S., Richardson, F. M., Josse, G., Shakeshaft, C., Seghier, M. L., & Price, C. J. (2013). The influence of reading ability on subsequent changes in verbal IQ in the teenage years. Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience, 6, 30-39. doi: 10.1016/j.bbr.2011.03.031

Rosas, R., & Bravo, T. (2009). Jugando con las letras: Validación de un instrumento basado en computador para evaluar competencias lectoras iniciales. Boletín de Investigación Educacional, 24(1), 17- 34.

Rosas, R., & Santacruz, C. (2013). Dime en qué colegio estudiaste y te diré que CI tienes. Radiografía al desigual acceso al capital cognitivo en Chile. Santiago, Chile: Ediciones UC.

Shaywitz, B., Holford, T., Holahan, J., Fletcher, J., Stuebing, K., Francis, D. & Shaywitz, S. (1995). A Matthew effect for IQ but not for reading: Results from a longitudinal study. Reading Research Quarterly, 30: 894–906. doi: 10.2307/748203

Shaywitz, S., & Shaywitz, B. (2005). Dyslexia. Biological Psychiatry, 57, 1301- 1309. doi: 10.1016/j.biopsych.2005.01.043

Siegel, L. (1992). An evaluation of the discrepancy definition of dislexia. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 25(10), 618- 629. doi: 10.1177/002221949202501001

Sistema de Medición de Calidad de la Educación (2006). Resultados nacionales. Santiago de Chile, Ministerio de Educación.

Sistema de Medición de Calidad de la Educación (2008). Resultados nacionales. Santiago de Chile, Ministerio de Educación

Sistema de Medición de Calidad de la Educación (2010). Resultados nacionales SIMCE 2009. Santiago de Chile, Ministerio de Educación.

Spearman, C. (1904). “General intelligence,” objectively determined and measured. American Journal of Psychology, 15, 201-293.

Stanovich, K.E. (1986). Matthew effects in reading: Some consequences of individual differences in the acquisition of literacy. Reading Research Quarterly, 21(4), 360- 406.

Stanovich, K.E., Cunningham, A.E., & Feeman, D.J. (1984). Intelligence, cognitive skills and early Reading progress. Reading Research Quarterly, 19(3), 278-303.

Stelzl, I., Merz, F., Ehlers, T., & Remer, H. (1995). The effect of schooling on the development of fluid and crystallized intelligence: A quasi experimental study. Intelligence, 21(3), 279- 296. doi: 10.1016/0160-2896(95)90018-7

Sternberg, R. (2004). Culture and Intelligence. American Psychologist, 59(5), 325- 338. doi: 10.1037/0003-066X.59.5.325

Sternberg, R. (2005). There are no public policy implications. A reply to Rushton and Jensen. Psychology, Public Policy, and Law. 11(2), 295- 301. doi: 10.1037/1076-8971.11.2.295

Strasser, K., & Lissi, M. (2009). Home instruction effects on emergent literacy in a sample of Chilean Kindergarten Children. Scientific Studies of Reading, 3(2), 175- 204. doi: 10.1080/10888430902769525

Teasdale, T., & Owen, D. (2000). Forty- year secular trends in cognitive abilities. Intelligence, 28(2), 115-120. doi: 10.1016/S0160-2896(99)00034-3

Tunmer, W., Chapman, J., & Prochow, J. (2006). Literate cultural at school entry predicts later reading achievement: A seven year longitudinal Study. New Zealand Journal of Educational Studies, 41(2), 183- 2.

Thienpont, K., & Verleye, G. (2003). Cognitive ability and occupational status in a British cohort. Journal of Biosocial Science, 36, 333- 349. doi: 10.1017/S0021932003006229

Van Bergen, E., de Jong, P. F., Maassen, B., Krikhaar, E., Plakas, A., & van der Leij, A. (2013). IQ of four-year-olds who go on to develop dyslexia. Journal of Learning Disabilities, doi: 0022219413479673.

Vellutino, F., Scanlon, D., Sipay, E., Small, S., Chen, R., Pratt, A. & Denclay, M. (1996). Cognitive profiles of difficult to remediate and readly remediates poor readers: Early intervention as a vehicle for distinguishing between cognitive and experiential deficits as basic causes of specific reading disability. Journal of Educational Psychology, 88(4), 601- 638. doi: 10.1037/0022-0663.88.4.601

Vellutino, F., Scanlon, D., Zhang, H., & Schatschneider, C. (2008). Using response to kindergarten and first grade intervention to identify children at risk for long term reading difficulties. Reading and Writing, 21, 437-480. doi: 10.1177/00222194060390020401

Walczyk, J., & Griffith-Ross, D. (2007). How important is reading skill fluency for comprehension?. The Reading Teacher, 60, 560-9. doi: 10.1598/RT.60.6.6

Williams, W. (1998). Are we raising smarter children today? School and home related influences on IQ. En Neisser (Edit). The rising curve: Long term gains in IQ and related measures, pp 125- 154. American Psychological Association: Washington, DC.

Winship, C., & Korenman, S. (1997). Does staying in school make you smarter? The effect of education on IQ in the bell curve. In B. Devlin, S.E. Fienberg, D.P. Resnick, & K. Roeder (Eds.). Intelligence, genes, & success. Scientist respond to the bell curve. New York: Springer- Verlag, Inc.

Wolf, M., & Barzillai, M. (2009). The importance of deep reading. Educational Leadership. Special Issue on Literacy 2.0. 66(6), 32-35.

Whitehurts, G., & Lonigan, C. (1998). Child development and emergent literacy. Child Development, 69(3), 848- 872. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-8624.1998.tb06247.x

Zax, J., & Rees, D. (2002). IQ, academic performance, environment and earnings. Review of Economics and Statics, 84, 600- 614. doi: 10.1162/003465302760556440

Zhang, Y., Tardif, T., Shu, H., Li, H., Liu, H., McBride-Chang, C., Liang, W., & Zhang, Z. (2013). Phonological skills and vocabulary knowledge mediate socioeconomic status effects in predicting reading outcomes for Chinese children.Developmental psychology, 49(4), 665 - 671. doi: 10.1037/a0028612

Descargas

Publicado

2016-03-30

Cómo citar

Escobar, J. P., Tenorio, M., Ceric, F., & Rosas, R. (2016). IMPACTO DE LA CALIDAD EDUCATIVA SOBRE EL DESEMPEÑO EN PRUEBAS DE INTELIGENCIA DE NIÑOS CON DIFICULTADES LECTORAS. Ciencias Psicológicas, 8(1), 17-29. https://doi.org/10.22235/cp.v8i1.1037

Número

Sección

ARTÍCULOS ORIGINALES