Oseopercepción: la sensibilidad mediada por los implantes oseointegrados

  • Morris Mizraji
  • Carmela Ingver
  • Francisco Kolenc
Palabras clave: implantes dentales, neurofisiología, oseointegración, oseopercepción, periodonto.

Resumen

En la búsqueda de soluciones al problema de la edentación parcial o total, los implantes dentales se han ganado un lugar destacado debido a su predecibilidad, estética, comodidad y función mejorada respecto a otras opciones restauradoras. El anclaje óseo de los implantes brinda estabilidad a la restauración y tiene la capacidad de transmitir las fuerzas directamente al hueso. Esto último permite, a su vez, poner en marcha una nueva modalidad sensorial descripta recientemente como oseopercepción. Esta información periférica provoca un reordenamiento de los mapas sensitivos y motores en la corteza cerebral, lo que implica una mejoría en la percepción consciente del estímulo respecto a la situación de edentación y nueva información para el ajuste de la función motora mandibular. La evidencia experimental demuestra que las rehabilitaciones sobre implantes dentales presentan umbrales de detección táctil pasivos y activos aumentados en comparación con los dientes naturales. Se discute si esta capacidad discriminativa proviene de receptores residuales del ligamento periodontal o si depende de brotes de nuevas fibras nerviosas en la interfase hueso-implante o bien de otros receptores ubicados a distancia de los mismos.

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Publicado
2016-03-27