Oclusión y función oclusal en el adulto mayor.

  • Susumu Nisizaki Universidad de la República (UdelaR) Universidad Católica del Uruguay (UCU)

Resumen

RESUMEN. Se ha hecho un estudio integral de la O y función O en el AM, basado en una amplia revisión bibliográfica y experiencia personal. Es muy importante comprender el rol que juega la oclusión en el AM. Todos saben que las funciones bucales más conocidas son:
masticación, deglución, fonética y estética. Todas ellas relacionadas de alguna forma con los dientes y la función oclusal. Sin embargo, hoy la O. en los AM tiene una remarcable función, porque es considerada como un verdadero predictor de salud general y bucal; cuanto mayor es la cantidad de unidades masticatorias, es mejor. La calidad de la oclusión se relaciona incluso con la circulación cerebral, memoria, deficiencias cognitivas, etc. Muchas investigaciones están vinculadas con evaluación de índices de salud bucal en los ancianos (GOHAI) y las actividades de la vida diaria (ADL). Por otra parte el estado de salud bucal de los adultos mayores debe hacer tomar decisiones al odontólogo, para evitar esas condiciones en declinación. Por ejemplo, una enfermedad periodontal, puede decidir el angostamiento de la rehabilitación O en sentido V-L, de piezas individuales como de puentes; así como también en prótesis removible, se deben seleccionar dientes artificiales más angostos (V-L) en rebordes alveolares finos. En ambos casos anteriores, el propósito es evitar tratamientos iatrogénicos. La ausencia de O o sus malas condiciones pueden incluso desencadenar una disquinesia orofacial. 

Biografía del autor

Profesor Director de la Carrera de Especialización en
Gerodontología, Facultad de Odontología, Universidad de la Republica.
Profesor de la Clínica Integral del Adulto Mayor,
Facultad de Odontología, Universidad Católica del Uruguay.
Especialista en Gerodontología y Prostodoncia, Facultad de Odontología, Universidad de la Republica.

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Publicado
2016-04-07
Cómo citar
NISIZAKI, Susumu. Oclusión y función oclusal en el adulto mayor.. Actas Odontológicas (Publicación discontinuada), [S.l.], v. 6, n. 1, p. 57-67, apr. 2016. ISSN 2393-6304. Disponible en: <http://revistas.ucu.edu.uy/index.php/actasodontologicas/article/view/1088>. Fecha de acceso: 21 apr. 2019 doi: https://doi.org/10.22235/ao.v6i1.1088.

Palabras clave

oclusión; adulto mayor; función oclusal; salud bucal; gerodontología